First encountered by Humanity in 2151, the Suliban are a Humanoid species 
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resident in the Beta Quadrant. They are no more evolved than Humans, but certain parts of the Suliban species have allied themselves with a shadowy figure from the distant future in order to wage a "temporal cold war" on others of their time. This "Cabal" have undergone extensive genetic engineering in order to give them impressive physical abilities. Engineered Suliban can distort their skeletal structure, allowing them to flatten their bodies and fit through tight openings. They can also adhere themselves to many different surfaces, allowing them to crawl across the walls or ceiling. Their skin has a network of subcutaneous pigment sacks which allow them to change colour in a manner reminiscent to the Terran chameleon; their uniform is a biomemetic garment with similar properties.
Internally, the modified Suliban have five bronchial lobes instead of three, and their alveoli clusters have been modified to allow them to breathe various different atmospheres. Compound retinas allow the modified Suliban to see a wide variety of spectra. 
The crew of Enterprise had several dealings with the Suliban, notably when Captain Archer returned the Klingon agent Klaang to the Empire with information that the Suliban were attempting to provoke a Klingon civil war. 
However, not all Suliban are members of the Cabal; many regard the actions of the more violent members of their species with disgust. Even so they themselves face considerable emnity from other species, and some species such as the Tandarans keep all Suliban captive whether they are active members of the Cabal or not. 
Even the actions of the Cabal themselves are not always as clear cut as they seem; a Suliban operative saved the NX class Enterprise from destruction whilst it was investigating a protostar,  and the Suliban warned Captain Archer of the origin of the Xindi attack on Earth in 2153.