Founder members of the Federation , the Andorians are a violent warrior race. 
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Unlike the Klingons they tend to fight for purely practical gain rather than for personal honour or glory. Andorian culture stresses discipline and self control, and this can make them appear unsympathetic at times.
Physically, Andorians are humanoids similar to many in the Federation.  They have distinctive blue skin and white hair, but the most obvious difference lies in their antenna; these are often fixed in place,  but in some Andorians the antenna can move.  There is a sub-species of Andorians known as The Aenar, who have much paler skin and are blind. Telepathy is common amongst the Aenar, and they have strict cultural rules against using their abilities to spy on the thoughts of others. The Aenar are strongly isolationist, and very few Andorians have ever managed to meet one although there are some communications between the Andorian government and the Aenar leaders. There is also a strong streak of pacifism in Aenar culture. 
The Andorians and Vulcans have a somewhat troubled history; in the mid 21st century the Andorians terraformed a Class-D planetoid which they named Wehtaan. When they refused to allow the Vulcans to inspect the colony the Vulcans responded by forcibly evacuating the colony. In 2097 the Vulcans officially claimed the planetoid, which they named Paan Mokar'a in 2097. Hostilities continued until 2152 when Captain Archer managed to negotiate a peace deal between the two sides. 
The Andorians have also had considerable animosity with the Tellarites in the past. In 2154 the Romulans attempted to initiate a war between the two sides by using a drone ship which could camoflague itself as other vessels to attack an Andorian warship.  The plot failed thanks to Captain Archer and the NX-01, who created a temporary alliance between the two sides and the Humans and Vulcans. In the aftermath the Andorians and Tellarites at last began to talk through their problems.  Both sides also attended the inter-species conference held on Earth in 2155, which aimed to build a true alliance between many of the planets near Earth. 
In the Mirror universe, Andorians were one of the subject races which the Terran Empire subjugated during the first century after it achieved starflight. Andorians continued to design and build their own ships; in 2155 many of these took part in the rebellion which threatened the Empire that year. The rebellion was quelled in large part thanks to the advanced technology the Empire obtained from the USS Defiant.