One of the most influential and important species in the Alpha quadrant, Humans originate from the planet Earth in the Sol system. The early history of the planet was remarkable in many respects - chiefly for the number of contacts with alien civilisations which occurred. All of these proved to be of a very limited type however,  and it was not until 2063 that the first official First Contact occured. At this point Earth was suffering the effects of a large scale nuclear war and was at a particularly low point. A group of scientists working under Zefram Cochrane had been working on a method of faster than light drive system for spacecraft when the war occurred. Despite having no official funding and poor living conditions the team pressed on with their project, and by 2063 they where able to launch the Phoenix. 
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Cochrane's flight attracted the attention of a Vulcan survey vessel which was in the system; the Vulcans subsequently sent a shuttlecraft down to make contact with Cochrane's team. The discovery that they where not alone in the universe had a profound impact on mankind, bringing all the people of the Earth together as never before.
Rapid progress followed, and by 2113 poverty, hunger and war had been abolished from the planet. 
In 2151 Humanity launched the NX class, their first true long range interstellar vessels.  Their sphere of influence began to expand rapidly as new colonies were established and new trading routes opened. Finally, in 2152 they encountered the Romulan Empire;  the two powers subsequently fought a brief but intense war which was ended in when the Romulan Neutral Zone was established in order to provide a buffer zone between the two powers. 
The Romulan War proved to Humanity that they had over-reached themselves, and they sought to form an alliance of different civilisations in order to provide for greater stability and prevent further conflicts. The United Federation of Planets was established in 2161  when the Humans and Vulcans signed the Federation Constitution. Although the Federation is regarded as a model of inter-species cooperation, Humans have always tended to dominate it - to the extent that the Klingons once dubbed it a Homo Sapiens only club! 
Physically, Humans are bilaterally symetrical bipeds whose skin and hair can vary considerably between individuals. As with most species there are two genders, male and female, but unusually there are several different racial groups.  In most other respects Humans are physically close to the average for an Alpha quadrant species.
The Borg designation for humanity is Species 5618; the borg class Humans as originating in Grid 325; they regard Human physiology as inefficient, with below-average cranial capacity, minimal redundant systems and limited regenerative abilities.