||But, Jason, do you know what they used to MANAGE them? (and are there any that are _integrated_ with AD?) Google is FAR from a full cutover.I'm more than ciurous about this. I WANT to see viable competition to AD and would very much like to know just what it might be.And there's the other matter the problem I cited of the similarity between AD and the Registry where applications can become SO entrenched into either/both that they're a nightmare to move/remove/even UPGRADE.One problem with any system is its external dependencies. So, when ISV's decided to integrate with or build upon such as Sharepoint and MS changes Sharepoint to the degree that former development had to be simply TRASHED, or the ISV _and its product_ go UNDER and the customer is left holding the stick you see my point.Better off avoiding the Swiss Army knives from Microsoft (or anyone), to my mind.External dependencies scare me. Once your application depends on something you cannot control that is NOT generic (like just a TCP/IP stack, for example, or straightforward SQL), you've set yourself up for potential disaster. Up an alley in a semi with no room to turn around.